Who is Frank Patterson?

by Caitlyn Harrison

Frank Patterson (1871-1952) was a highly renowned commercial artist, active from the late 1800s to the mid-1900s. He was able to produce art in many different forms and styles, however, it is his intricate line drawings using a pen that are his most famous and impressive pieces. It would not be difficult to find examples of these pieces of artwork, as it is estimated he produced over 25,000 in his lifetime.

His work mainly showed idyllic countryside scenes, depicting a bicycle or motorcar nestled within the landscape. These pieces of work were produced for travel magazines, most notably The Motor and CTC Gazette. What is fascinating about Patterson’s work is the sheer longevity of his career, and how through analysing examples throughout his career, social and technological advancements can be recorded within his work.

He was drawing for these magazines in the golden age of the bicycle and motor car, representing the immense possibility these items could offer a person, and, arguably, alluding to the ever-growing fallacy of the serene open road. Due to the sudden popularity of the bicycle and motor car, the once quiet and peaceful countryside scenes were now overrun with weekend tourists and visitors. But that is never what Patterson portrayed in his work. Instead he captured a time of early exploration and vast empty roads of possibility, which was far from what it came to be in the later years of his career.

Patterson’s work can also be accredited, alongside other travel artists and other factors, for helping to champion the use of the ‘safety’ bicycle, which is the bicycle we still use today. This overtook the use of the ‘ordinary’ (the proper name for a penny farthing!). The same can be said for the increase in popularity of the motor car, which was in its relative infancy in the early 1900s. Patterson, by contributing to these magazines, aimed at the middle classes and higher lower classes as reflected in their cover price, allowed the masses of society to see the great possibility these modes of transport could offer.

He is somewhat of an anomaly when it comes to artists of this era. He is nothing like the contemporary metropolitan artist, as he was a burly countryman who lived in a remote cottage. He was also a farmer (hat and rifle included!). He had an affinity to the countryside and lived in his famous cottage Pear Tree Cottage from his 20s until the day he died.

Frank Patterson was an interesting and talented artist. His life and work reflect the society that he was a part of, which I find to be an incredibly special part of this artist. He was vastly popular as an artist and had a society dedicated to his work  (The Frank Patterson Appreciation Society) which ran for many years until the mid- nineties. He is still known within the cycling community but has fallen into obscurity the past few decades.

If you are interested in finding out more about this amazing artist, you can find a trove of work at the Richard Roberts Archive, located in Stockport. There are hundreds of examples of his work within publications, and the archive boasts a database of some of Patterson’s work, with over 500 entries.

Moore, Gerry, Frank Patterson (Birmingham: Parks and Mainwarings Ltd, 1984)

Take Your Research Public: May – June 2023

Following a great success last year, we will be running the ‘Take Your Research Public’ course again this Summer. It will take place on five Tuesdays from 30 May to 27 June 2023. Speakers are to be confirmed, and applications will open in March. For now, save the dates, and we will update with more information shortly.

An Evening with Mrs Terrell and Friends

By Scarlett Duffill Haddon and Imogen Sahni

An Evening with Mrs Terrell and Friends was an exciting day in which students visited Manchester Metropolitan University, learning about black women’s activism and the fight for gender and race equality from 1900 – 1960s. The day was sponsored by the British Association for American Studies, the US Embassy and Manchester Metropolitan University. It ran in collaboration with award-winning playwright and historian Pamela Roberts, Dr Marie Molloy and Student Ambassadors from the University.

To begin the day Pamela Roberts presented a screening of her play An Evening With Mrs Terrell and Friends, which was introduced through a monologue delivered by George Ukachukwu. The monologue explored the experience of black male academics at Oxford, whilst the play took on a broader approach. On a surface level, the play focused on the politics of Mrs Mary Church Terrell, who alongside others campaigned for suffrage and racial equality. It was immensely refreshing to see Roberts’ portrayal of the black contribution to the American suffrage movement, which has been largely disregarded in historiography and public memory. There were clear racial divides within the women’s suffrage movement, seen through figures such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, yet Roberts’ play goes one step further to explore colourism, classism and hierarchy amongst the African American community. The play was a complex response to the history of intersectionality and the hidden victims who live within it, with Roberts’ exploring the themes of colourism, echoing tones from Rebecca Hall’s Passing (2021). Moreover, Roberts took on a relatively progressive approach to teaching history, as she chose to tell black women’s history through a play, rather than through a typically academic format. This is incredibly important as it breaks down the barriers and helps to make history accessible to a wider audience. This was reflected through the students’ responses at the end of the day, and through the Q&A which was hosted after the workshop; students were engaged, and were encouraged to think about privilege, hierarchy, and selective memorialisation.

Monologue performed by George Ukachukwu

The afternoon comprised of workshops in which students learned about influential women in the civil rights movement. The Key Stage Three workshops included a short Q and A about studying at university as well as an activity in which students created posters about influential women in the civil rights movement. Students were actively involved, and it was brilliant seeing them exercise their creativity in this task. The Q and A helped challenge some students’ perceptions about learning at university ‘It can show you … it’s not just writing down, copying massive paragraphs, it’s about learning about things with practical examples and real-life stories.’ The Key Stage Five workshop focused on themes of intersectionality and misogynoir. The workshop was centered around primary source analysis focusing on sources from Angela Davis and Audre Lorde. This allowed students to learn more about black women in the civil rights movement whilst enhancing their practical history skills. From student feedback, it was clear they enjoyed this opportunity to learn more about black women in the civil rights movement, a subject largely neglected by school curriculums. ‘I thought it was really educational and brought a lot of light to the civil rights movement and black people in power.’ Not only did this day give students the opportunity to learn more about black women’s activism in the fight for racial and gender equality, as Scarlett, one of our Student Ambassadors articulates, we also learned a lot. ‘Personally, I really enjoyed covering new aspects of black women’s history, and I really enjoyed doing the research behind the preparation for the workshop.’ The day gave all our student ambassadors an opportunity to collaborate, develop our skill sets and gain new experiences.

Student Ambassador Scarlett leading a workshop

Sam Johnson Memorial Lecture 2023 Online, Gender, Gentile Inclusion, and Jewish Identity in Antiquity: What to Do with a Woman, Professor Jill Hicks-Keeton, 25 January, 6pm

Presented by Manchester Classical Association and Manchester Centre for Public History and Heritage

Join us for this annual memorial lecture to our late colleague, Dr Sam Johnson, here at Manchester Metropolitan University, a renowned specialist in histories of Jewish Identity. Sign up here.

Prof Jill Hicks-Keeton (Phd, Duke University) is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Oklahoma, where she teaches courses on biblical literature, ancient Judaism & Christianity, and modern evangelicalism. She is the author of Arguing with Aseneth: Gentile Access to Israel’s Living God in Jewish Antiquity (Oxford University Press, 2018), which was awarded the 2020 Lautenschlaeger Award for Theological Promise, and Does Scripture Speak for Itself? The Museum of the Bible and the Politics of Interpretation (Cambridge University Press, 2022; with Cavan Concannon).

Hicks-Keeton co-edited The Museum of the Bible: A Critical Introduction (Lexington Books/Fortress Academic, 2019) and The Ways that Often Parted (SBL Press, 2018) and has written for Religion Dispatches, Religion & Politics, Ancient Jew Review, The Revealer, and The Bible and Interpretation. Hicks-Keeton was a recipient of the Society of Biblical Literature Regional Scholar Award and has served as a Humanities Forum Fellow, a Risser Innovative Teaching Fellow, and Honors College Presidential Teaching Fellow at the University of Oklahoma.

Hicks-Keeton serves as Co-Chair of the Metacriticism Program Unit of the Society of Biblical Literature and steering committee member of the Pseudepigrapha Program Unit of the Society of Biblical Literature. She is on the editorial board of the Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha.

Follow her on Twitter @JillHicksKeeton.

Sign up here.

Gender, Gentile Inclusion, and  Jewish Identity in Antiquity... image
Gender, Gentile Inclusion, and  Jewish Identity in Antiquity... image

Women’s Football Coaching as a Cultural Heritage

By Jodie Neville

Women’s football has undergone a surge in popularity recently thanks to the Lionesses winning the Euros. It seems the struggle for recognition and investment in women’s football is starting to be won. This long and bumpy road started with pioneer players, and the history on them has been vastly added to by writers and scholars in recent years. There are, and have been, women football coaches, but it is an area and a story that remains comparatively unexplored. There is a lack of debate on gender, race, and class participation in coaching, and this often also takes place in a historical vacuum. This is where this research project comes in.

There has been a growing interest in Britain’s sporting heritage over the last two decades, as highlighted by an expansion in the number of sports-related museums and statues, although heritage is not solely represented by physical artefacts, it can equally be represented by memories and oral histories. This project will be an agent in the heritage process by adding interview accounts of the life histories of women football coaches to the historical record. The project will then assess how far the cultural heritage characteristics of coaching have contributed to the marginalisation of women in coaching.

1912 English Ladies Swimming Team

Sports coaching is a social practice that is shaped by its cultural context. Developments in coaching, therefore, reflect wider public values. Some of the key cultural constraints that hinder female coaches are historically embedded patriarchal structures and misogynistic attitudes that continue to view women as ‘homemakers’ and unsuited to sports coaching, especially at elite levels.

This project represents a research collaboration between Manchester Metropolitan University and the National Football Museum. It will focus on uncovering the history of women coaches in football to develop an understanding of how constraints on their participation manifested themselves during the last century and how women managed to negotiate with, or circumvent, them. Any implications or lessons from the research findings for twenty-first century women’s football coaching can then be derived and shared.

Part of this work will be carried out by identifying and cataloguing material related to coaching, with an emphasis on female coaches, held within the NFM archives. This will add significantly to the existing historiography regarding sports coaching more generally. These outcomes can be used to inform wider debates about the lack of female engagement in sports coaching and raise public and academic awareness of the archival holdings of the NFM.

Female Football Coach

In order to carry out this research, the project will be seeking participants who have first-hand experience and knowledge of being a woman in coaching. This extends to undertaking coaching responsibilities informally as well as formally. You might have managed games or training if the regular coach was absent, for example. Or you might have worked closely with the coach, and they relied upon you for assistance. If this sounds like you or someone you know, get in touch.


An Evening with Mrs. Terrell and Friends: Film Screening, 16 November, 2022, 5pm

Manchester Metropolitan University, Geoffrey Manton Building, Lecture Theatre 4.

This film screening and workshop organised by Manchester Metropolitan University is in collaboration with Pamela Roberts, an award-winning historian, playwright, and director that brings to life Roberts’ Eccles Centre Visiting Fellowship research featuring the lives of four African American women from the Washington black elite and their contributions to Civil Rights c.1900.

Following the film, there will be a Q&A with Pamela and two actors from the play.

Sign up here.

Online MCPHH Public Lecture: Stories, Archives, Voices: Inclusive History at Historic Royal Palace, Dr Misha Ewen – 2 November 2022, 5pm

In March 2021, Misha Ewen joined Historic Royal Palaces, the charity that looks after six palaces including Hampton Court and the Tower of London, as its first Curator for Inclusive History. What attracted her to the post was the opportunity to reshape the narrative of these historic sites through the inclusion of different voices, examination of alternate archives, and excavation of other stories. In this paper, Misha discusses how her work researching and disseminating these stories has developed, including the gains to be had by bringing social history to bear on the early modern palace.

Dr Misha Ewen is an historian of early modern England and its empire in the Atlantic world. Before she joined Historic Royal Palaces, Misha held a Hallsworth Research Fellowship at the University of Manchester and postdoctoral position at the University of Kent. Her first book, The Virginia Venture: American Colonization and English Society, 1580-1660, is forthcoming with the University of Pennsylvania Press.

For more info and to sign up, see here.

Zoom link – https://mmu-ac-uk.zoom.us/j/95530562074?pwd=R2lXejUzaDVFZ0V4T1Q0R2pJZnFUdz09

MCPHH/CA Public Lecture: “Is ‘race’ a theme in Petrarch’s Africa, and why should we care?”, Dr Sam Agbamu – 26 October, 2022, 6pm

Geoffrey Manton Building, Manchester Metropolitan University, Lecture Theatre 1

Dr Sam Agbamu (Leverhulme Early Career Fellow, Royal Holloway, University of London). Sam is a classicist who is especially interested in the relationship between Latin literature and post-classical imperialism, as well as the role of the discipline of Classics in the formation of discourses of ‘race’ and nationhood.

For more about his research, teaching and publications, see his RHUL profile

This jointly-hosted public lecture is open to all and is a hybrid event. Please ensure that you book either a ‘in person’ or an ‘online’ ticket.

Virtual – Join Zoom Meeting


For more information and to sign up, see here.

‘Before and After: Manchester’s buildings evolution from the Cotton Industry to the 21st Century’

By Ella Walker

Manchester gained its city status in 1853. The urbanisation of the city was a consequence of the boom in the textile industry which saw Manchester become the world’s first industrialised city. Cotton played a huge role in the growth of Manchester. The cotton famine (1862-1863) was a consequence of the American Civil War. A northern blockade of southern ports resulted in the cotton supply to England being cut off.  As a result, workers in the Manchester cotton industry lost jobs and faced poverty. Despite this, many in Manchester supported the fight to abolish slavery. Observing the difference between the buildings and their purposes back then versus now highlights Manchester’s roots in the cotton industry and its evolution as a city over time. It also enables us to see the journey of the working women and men during the period and what each of these buildings meant to them.

The mills of Manchester were the heart and soul of the city’s success, witnessing many key moments throughout their history. The first mill, which is no longer standing, was built in 1783, on Miller Street for Richard Arkwright. The Crusader Mill in Ancoats that was built in 1830, is a key example of how cotton mills of Manchester evolved. Once used to provide the city with a wealth of resources, today Crusader Mill houses luxury apartments. Working class people would have spent a lot of their time in the mill, as they made a living and formed relationships with their fellow workers. Exposed brickwork, original cast iron columns and wooden beams have been left in-tact, honouring the building’s history. The use of the mills today shows the full circle moment of Cottonopolis. From the spinning of cotton in the 19th century, to meeting Manchester’s housing needs in the present day.

The Crusader Mill

One of the most important and renowned buildings is the Manchester Town Hall. This building is situated in the centre of Manchester and has always been the hub of the city. Building for the Town Hall started in 1868 and finished in 1877; after the collapse of the Cotton industry and the famine. What is so important about it, is the architectural elements that gothic-style architect Alfred Waterhouse put in place. He makes numerous nods to Manchester’s cotton history. For example, statues of Richard Cobden and John Bright stand inside the Town Hall. Richard Cobden was a Radical and Liberal politician who campaigned for the Anti-Corn Law league which impacted the working-class mill workers of Manchester. He did this alongside John Bright who was a promoter of free trade policies and a prevalent figure around the Lancashire Cotton Famine. There is also mosaic flooring inside the hall, which includes the iconic bee symbol of Manchester, as well as a border of white strands and stylised cotton flowered on the mosaic floors. Currently undergoing renovation until 2024, the Town Hall continues to provide a central meeting place for workers.

Manchester Town Hall

Finally, the Manchester Free Trade Hall was another extremely important building during 19th Century Cottonopolis. It was constructed between 1853-56 by Richard Cobden; the Radical and Liberal politician. The building, shrouded in history still stands today and is situated on Peter Street, sitting on the site of the historic Peterloo Massacre. It was also the home of the Halle Orchestra. In December 1862 a meeting of cotton workers was held at the Free Trade Hall and their support was pledged to the Federal States of America in their struggles against the South. This moment signified Manchester and Lancashire’s support for President Abraham Lincoln who thanked the cotton workers. A statue of Lincoln stands in Lincoln Square to this day. The Free Trade Hall is now home to popular Manchester restaurant, Peter Street Kitchen and despite the change in interior the original beauty from the exterior of the building can still be seen.

Painting of the Manchester Free Trade Hall
Manchester Free Trade Hall today

Each of these locations throughout Manchester honour the history of Cottonopolis and the industry that allowed Manchester to boom and become a hub of culture.  Although the city and its architecture may evolve, its roots and foundations, honoured through its buildings remain.

Woman and Domestic Photography

By Lilly Hilton

Nowadays, a lot of us rely on photos to preserve our memories, particularly those from our youth. It’s now common for our mothers to capture and save every detail of our childhoods, whether it’s in the form of a family photo album filled with awkward but nostalgic candid photos, travel photos from overseas, or even just domestic snapshots. Thus, for many, photographs are deeply personal objects that serve as physical reminders of our lives. Our family photos are commonly viewed as the keepers of our personal memories, a physical object that we can view whenever we wish. Documenting our domestic lives has become ingrained in our culture, and it all started with women.

Family group in the Isle Of Man, 1893 or 94. By Abaraphobia, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0.

Photography’s accuracy in taking and preserving memories has been utilised since the nineteenth century, and since then it’s only evolved. Most histories of photography’s beginnings overlook the importance of women. The medium was created primarily by men, but women embraced it as their own. Whereas practically all other pastimes had been dominated by men, photography gave women a means of self-expression that was also practical. If not for Victorian and Edwardian ladies, domestic photography would not exist like it does today.

Domestic photography is commonly used to describe the act of a non-professional taking and using photos. From our births to our deaths, it has been used to document and record practically every element of our lives. However, this was not the intention when the medium was created. It comes from the artisans who employed the method to aid in the creation of their artworks, viewing photography as a light-drawing technique.

Mother, daughter, grandchildren. Late Victorian / Edwardian. By photojojo3, licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

However, people were unable to help falling in love with the medium as it continued to improve over time. By making it more accessible to the general public, by the end of the nineteenth century, photography had become a hobby for many.  This resulted in a dramatic rise in amateur photography, with individuals taking pictures of their daily lives. The first Kodak camera was introduced in 1888, and it was believed that 1.5 million had found their way into individuals’ households barely ten years later. With Kodak’s more accessible camera being able to be used at home, individuals took advantage of the technology and generated a new use for it. It eventually evolved from a tool for artists to help with their craft into a tool for mundane folks to wield at leisure.

Moreover, women were able to easily learn how to operate the camera from the instructions because it didn’t require any formal academic training. Furthermore, when Kodak decided to focus their marketing on women, it transformed photography from a profession to a means of collecting and preserving family memories and domestic life. Women photographed what they could, which happened to be their daily, domestic lives. And the most prevalent thing in their lives were their family, which seem to be subject in most images found from the time. Some of them were more staged, with the family all stood in place in front of the camera, capturing everyone. Others were more candid, featuring the children playing outside in the sun, or even snow. Even the Royals engaged in photography due to its growing popularity. Queen Victoria’s granddaughter, Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1878- 1842) was rather enamoured of the pastime.

Winter scene with children, 1880s. By east_lothian_museums. Is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

Even though many women, including Lady Clementina Hawarden, treated photography as more of an artistic expression and received recognition for it (1822-1865). Hawarden utilised photography to document her private life since, like so many other women of her generation, she was restricted to fulfilling domestic responsibilities in her home. Thus, Hawarden’s eight children were heavily featured in her photos, through raw candid portraits. These candid photos showed not only a world of recreation but also a deeper narrative about the development of adolescents. Hawarden’s photographs can be seen in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Unfortunately, many of the ladies who documented their domestic, routine lives at this time are impossible to be identified, leaving only the pictures we inadvertently happen across. However, these images were the beginning of domestic photography, allowing us insight into how our older generations existed.

There is almost a nostalgic feeling while looking at these images, which were taken so long ago. Moreover, there is a sensation of familiarity because many of us can remember having our images shot under similar, if not exactly same, circumstances. We can be assured that the makers of these pictures did not intend for them to be understood as historical or even relevant by those looking at them today, a century from now. They were probably taken to capture and preserve the occasion, to be able to physically look back and remember.

Victorian children, 1890s. By east_lothian_museums. Is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

Pictures taken at this time were not all that dissimilar from those we take today. There are elements of contemporariness in each photo, which serve as visual reflections of how little domestic photography has evolved. In addition, we can see the origins of domestic photography in our own modern images, such as how infants are photographed playing in the garden or how granny requests a photo with her grandkids. They serve as not only reminders of our current lives, but also the lives of our predecessors, demonstrating to us that humanity isn’t changing as drastically as we imagine.


Coe, B. and Gates, P. (1977) The snapshot photograph: the rise of popular photography, 1888-1939. London: Ash & Grant.

Di Bello, P. (2007) Women’s albums and photography in Victorian England: ladies, mothers and flirts. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.

Kuhn, A. (2007) Photography and cultural memory: a methodological exploration, Visual Studies, 22:3, 283-292.

LEWIS, E. M. M. A. (2021) Photography – a feminist history: how women shaped the art. ILEX GIFT.

McAloon, J., 2018. How Women Artists in Victorian England Pushed Photography Forward | Artsy. [online] Artsy. Available at: <https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-women-artists-victorian-england-pushed-photography-forward&gt; [Accessed 8 July 2022].

Pols, R. (2002) Family photographs, 1860-1945. Richmond, Surrey: Public Record Office (Public Record Office genealogist’s guides).

Sandbye, M. (2014) Looking at the family photo album: a resumed theoretical discussion of why and how, Journal of Aesthetics & Culture, 6:1.